Invasive species in the flora and fauna of Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park (Ukraine)
The territory of Podilski Tovtry National Natural Park covers an area of 261 315 ha, 72 % of which are cultivated lands that facilitated the expansion of 335 adventive species. Research on invasive plant and animal species was carried out during field surveys in 1996–2019. More than 220 geobotanical descriptions were compiled applying the Brown-Blanque method. In this territory, 26 species display distinct aggression and are referred to as invasive, which belong to 15 families of the class Magnoliopsidaand division Magnoliophyta. By origin, Northern American species prevail (15 species) followed by Asian (6) and European (5) species. By life form, annual herbal plants (therophytes) and trees predominate. Тherophytes mainly represent the familyAsteraceae. The studies of the phytocenosis showed that the invasive species are part of 19 vegetation classes. The invasive species settled in 14 natural communities and they grow in 10 rare (singular) aggregations. To reduce the impact of invasive species on rare habitats and communities it is necessary to take measures to restore the natural vegetation cover. In the territory of Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park, 7 species of vertebrate animals are considered invasive, the naturalisation of which threatens and has negative influence on the local fauna. Another 6 species of birds and mammals, due to natural range expansion and anthropogenic changes of abiotic environmental factors, settled in urban landscapes and were introduced by means of synanthropisation; they can be considered as close invaders. Motacilla citreola occurs in wet meadows and has an unstable abundance, thus it belongs to propulsive species. Another 11 bird species appear in the surveyed territory during the autumn and winter periods or in separate years. Their invasiveness is possible due to abundance fluctuations during migration and changes in their migration routes because of the influence of trophic factors.
bibliography: Lyubinska, L., М. Маtvieiev. 2021. Invasive species in the flora and fauna of Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park (Ukraine). Geo&Bio, 20: 75–84. (In Ukrainian)